It’s been dreary in Pittsburgh lately. With this last snow blast, it seems as though the seasons are changing. The days are still shorter. And with the lack of sun, many of us are going to feel this shift. Especially for those that suffer from Seasonal Affective Disorder. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that’s related to changes in seasons. If you’re like most people with SAD, your symptoms tend to begin near the fall. In most cases, they continue into the winter months. Your energy feels drained and you may feel moody. Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer.


In the average case, Seasonal Affective Disorder symptoms appear during late fall or early winter. And they tend to go away during the longer and brighter days of spring and summer. This pattern has been reversed in some cases though. In either scenario, symptoms may start out mild and become more intense as the season goes on.

Signs and symptoms of SAD may include:

  • Feelings of depression
  • Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Having low energy
  • Having problems with sleeping
  • Experiencing changes in your appetite or weight
  • Feeling sluggish or agitated
  • Having difficulty concentrating
  • Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty
  • Having frequent thoughts of death or suicide

Specific SAD Fall and Winter Symptoms

Symptoms specific to winter-onset SAD, sometimes called winter depression, may include:

  • Oversleeping
  • Appetite changes, especially a craving for foods high in carbohydrates
  • Weight gain
  • Tiredness or low energy

 Specific SAD Spring and Summer Symptoms

Symptoms specific to summer-onset seasonal affective disorder, sometimes called summer depression, may include:

  • Trouble sleeping (insomnia)
  • Poor appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Agitation or anxiety


Unfortunately, we still have not found any specific causes of SAD. But there are a few factors that may come into play. The first is your biological clock or circadian rhythm. The lack of sunshine may cause winter-onset SAD and mess with your body’s internal clock. Unfortunately, these can lead to feelings of depression.

The second is serotonin levels. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that affects mood. When serotonin levels drop, so does mood stabilization. It is also important to note that serotonin levels can also be affected by the lack of sun. The final suspect is the level of melatonin. You guessed it. The change of season can disrupt the body’s level of melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that plays a role in sleep patterns and mood.

Risk Factors

SAD is diagnosed more often in women than in men. And SAD occurs more frequently in younger adults than in older adults.

Factors that may increase your risk of seasonal affective disorder include:

  • Being a young female. SAD is diagnosed more often in women than in men. And comparatively, in more younger adults compared to older adults.
  • Family history. People with SAD may be more likely to have blood relatives with SAD or another form of depression.
  • Having a type of depression or bipolar disorder. Symptoms of depression may worsen seasonally if you have one of these conditions.
  • Living far from the equator. SAD appears to be more common in those who live in places that receive less natural sunlight

Treatments and Therapies

There are four major types of treatment for SAD which include medication, light therapy, vitamin D, and psychotherapy. They can be used alone or in combination with each other.


In regards to medication, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are often used to treat SAD. However, as with other medications, there are side effects of SSRIs. Always make sure to talk to your doctor about the risks and concerns of taking any medication. You may need to try several different antidepressant medications before finding the one that improves your symptoms without causing problematic side effects.

Light Therapy and Vitamin D

Since the 1980s, light therapy has been a popular approach to treating SAD. The idea behind light therapy is to replace the diminished sunshine of the fall and winter months using daily exposure to bright, artificial light. Symptoms of SAD may be relieved by sitting in front of a lightbox first thing in the morning. Especially when done on a daily basis from the early fall until spring.

In conjunction with light therapy is supplementing vitamin D. Currently, vitamin D supplementation alone is not regarded as an effective SAD treatment. But supplementing could be beneficial. Low levels of vitamin D have been found in people with SAD due to insufficient dietary intake or exposure to sunlight.


If someone suffers from SAD, Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) might be a great option for them. CBT relies on techniques such as identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with more positive ones. CBT also uses something called behavioral activation. Behavioral activation helps patients identify the activities that are engaging and make them happy in order to better cope with winter.

Let CPA Help Too!

We know you need a toolbox full of skills in order to cope with the challenges life throws at us. At CPA, we will always encourage patients to explore coping mechanisms that work best for them. However, we also know that a number of those skills come from counseling and different methods of therapy. Cristina Panaccione and Associates has three locations in the South Hills. We are currently accepting a limited number of new patients, so check out our videos to learn more about how we can help teach you the skills to fight depression!


* This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Please contact a medical professional for advice.

Darlene Friend – MSW, LCSW, EMDR

Darlene graduated from California University of Pennsylvania with a bachelor’s and master’s degree in Social Work. As well as an Aging Specialist Certificate in Gerontology. She is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania. And a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker in West Virginia. She provides individual therapy, family therapy, and couples counseling, as well as group services. She is experienced in a wide variety of mental health conditions ranging from chronic and persistent mental illness to adjustment disorders and grief.  Darlene specializes in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), therapy utilized for big and little traumas that affect the whole person.  She received training in many areas of behavioral health such as trauma and sexual assault.  She incorporates multiple modalities and evidenced-based practices in therapy. This includes transactional analysis, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational interviewing.